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  Welcome to MY web page on the 2nd greatest game of chess ever played. Many hours of work went into bringing you this page. I hope you enjoy it.  (page-banner, bot-cap1.gif; 05 KB)


Mikhail Botvinnik (2775)  -  Jose R. Capablanca (2800)
 [E49] 
 A.V.R.O. World Championship (Qualifier) Tournament 
(Rotterdam) Amsterdam, (NED) / 11,1938.

 [A.J. Goldsby I] 

Dozens of people had criticized my choice (calculations) of ratings here. These were meant to be rough approximations, and take older values and update them to 1999-2000 standards. (The period of time when I was working on this game.) According to "Chess Metrics" (click here);  and statistician Jeff Sonas,  Botvinnik  was rated approximately 2715 in 1938. But he was also the sole #1 player in the world from the mid-1940's to the late 1950's. According to the same web site,  Capablanca  was rated approximately 2730 when this game was played - and also was #1 on the world. Additionally Capa was probably the Number One (#1) player in the World from like 1915 or 1916, to about 1927. And even more impressive - according to J. Sonas - Capa has the BEST five-year-average of ANY player who ever lived!! And to top it off, Sonas says that Capa's rating  ...  during the period 1921-1923 ... peaked at ABOVE 2900!!!  (Few other players reached this plane!) 


You definitely will need a chess set to play over this game. 
 (There are NO diagrams.)
 

  Click  HERE  to go to a page with this game on a js re-play board.  

(See the bottom of this page for escape links, or click the "Back" button on your web browser.) 

  Click  HERE  to see my YT (chess) video on this game.  


 The 2nd Greatest Chess Game Ever? 


Simply one of the most brilliant games of chess ever played. 

(Played between two players who may BOTH belong in the "Top Ten List" of the greatest chess players who ever lived. In, historically, one of the more important - and strongest - chess tournaments ever played!) 

Many GM's (and other chess Masters) have personally told me this game was their favorite and (perhaps), 
"The Greatest Game Of Chess Ever Played." 

Botvinnik called this game, "THE Game of my life!!" 

When I was in New York in the late 60's, I was at the Manhattan Chess Club. A U.S. Championship had just concluded, so nearly all the top U.S. Masters were there, maybe with the exception of Bobby Fischer. (Who was always something of a recluse.) When I [repeatedly] asked the question, "What was the greatest game of chess ever played?" ... this game was mentioned by the Masters more than any other game.

In the book, (The Mammoth Book Of)  "The World's Greatest Chess Games," the [three] authors, (GM John Nunn, GM John Emms, and FM Graham Burgess), give this game a perfect score! (Only one other game in that book ... {Kasparov - Karpov} receives a perfect score, so this is high praise indeed!! 
(I rank this book in the, "Ten Best Chess Books Ever Written," here on my website. See the  page  on "The Best [chess] Books.") 

In his book, "The 100 Best,"  ("The 100 Best Chess Games of The 20th Century, Annotated and Ranked.") GM Andy Soltis ranks this game in the "Top 25," all-time. (The best 25 games of chess ever played.) 

Similarly, GM Robert Byrne, in his regular column in a New York city newspaper, rated this in the "Top Five" games of chess ever played. 

The well known writer, Al Horowitz, - and former long-time editor of "Chess Life and Review,"  wrote that this game was also in the "Top Ten" games of chess ever played. 

Irving Chernev, calls this game, "Botvinnik's Immortal Game." 

"This game deserves to be ranked among the greatest masterpieces in the literature of chess."  - (The late, great)  Irving Chernev. 

(The annotations for this game are PRIMARILY based on GM Andy Soltis's annotations from his book, "The 100 Best." 
(The 100 Best Games of The 20th Century, Ranked.) 


1. d4 Nf62. c4 e63. Nc3 Bb44. e3 d5!?;  Center. 

Black attacks the center, and grabs some more space. 

This may not be the most accurate move, but back in the nineteen-thirties, 
opening theory was far from being mapped out! 

[ A book line (today) is: 4...0-0; 5.Bd3 d5; 6.Nf3 c5; 7.0-0 Nc6; ("=") 
(Maybe - '+/=') with close to an equal position. 
(This line has been played in dozens of games, including: 
[by transposition] 
Robert J. Fischer - Boris Spassky; 
World Championship Match, (Game # 1.) Reykjavik, Iceland; 1972. 
That game continued: 8.a3 Ba5; 9.Ne2 dxc4; 10.Bxc4 Bb6; 
11.dxc5 Qxd1; 12.Rxd1 Bxc5; 13.b4 Be7; 
This position had been {previously} considered equal by theory. 
14.Bb2, ("+/=") Now ... 14...Bd7!N;  (A theoretical novelty at the time.) 
and the game soon boiled down to dead equality, but Fischer either 
blundered ... or over-reached; and Spassky eventually won. ] 

 

5. a3!,  Best, according to many annotators. 

Soltis gives this move an exclam, and rightfully so. 

Soltis says this is a good way of exploiting Black's fourth move, and was 
even a novelty at the time that it was played. Soltis also remarks that even 
Nimzovich did not appreciate the subtlety behind this move. 
(Nimzovich, in a similar position, called the move a2-a3, 
"A loss of tempo.") 

'!' - GM R. Fine. 
'!' - GM A. Soltis. 

[ 5.Nf3!? ] 

 

5...Bxc3+;  ('!?')  Good or bad? 

It is not clear whether it is best to capture or retreat here. 
(One of the basic ideas of this opening is to capture on c3, and give 
White doubled pawns. Black then plays against these pawns, often 
fixing them and attacking them. The doubled-pawn complex can cause 
White grief long into the endgame. However this involves giving up a
long-range Bishop for a short-range Knight. Timing is the key here. 
The trick is knowing when to take, and when to beat a hasty retreat.)  

This may actually be a transposition to the Samisch Variation here. 

[ MCO gives the line: 5...Be7; 6.Bd3 b6; 7.cxd5 exd5; 8.Nge2 0-0; 
9.b4 Nbd7; 10.Qb3 Bb7; 11.0-0 Re8; 12.b5 Bd6; 
The end of column # 47, page # 547. 
13.h3 Nf8; 14.a4, "+/="  White is just slightly better. 
[See MCO-14; columns # 43 - 48; 
(Mainly only col. # 47 here.) and notes (q.) through (t.). 
(Mainly note # (t.) here, for the end of the column.]. ]

 

6. bxc3 c5;  Bustin' loose. 

Kasparov annotated this game thoroughly for ChessBase. In his 
remarks, Kasparov says that Black has prematurely determined 
the pawn structure in this game. 

Today we know that Black should avoid doing this, and hold the pawns
back until the early middle-game. But again this is the accrued 
knowledge of nearly 75 years of opening theory. Capablanca was 
operating without this knowledge, and was - pretty much - on his own. 

[ Another 'Book" line is: 
6...0-0; 7.Bd3 dxc4; 8.Bxc4 c5; 9.Ne2 Qc7; 10.Bd3, "=" ]. 

 

7. cxd5,  ('!?')  Hmmmm. 

This seems a rather simplistic approach, but also an effective one. 

[The move: 7.f3!?,  would transpose to MCO-14, 
column # 49, page # 549. 

White could also play: 7.Nf3 0-0; 8.Bd3 dxc4; 9.Bxc4 Qc7; 
10.Ba2 b6; 11.0-0 Bb7; "="  with a reasonable game for both sides. ]. 

 

7...exd58. Bd3 0-09. Ne2,  The best square? 

(Yes.) The Knight goes here so that White can play a later f2-f3. 

[ Bad for White is: 9.Nf3?! c4; "=/+"  
and Black is at least a little better. ]. 

 

9...b610. 0-0,  King Safety. 

There seems to be nothing wrong with castling, 
as White gets his King to safety.

[ Botvinnik later in his career chose the line: 10.a4 Ba6; 11.Bxa6 Nxa6;
12.Ba3! Re8; 13.Qd3 c4; 14.Qc2,   White had good chances here, 
and would develop good attacking chances later in the game. 
Match Game, Soviet Union vs. Great Britain, 1946. ].

 

10...Ba6;  Relieving himself of a possibly "Bad" Bishop. 

"By all chess standards that dominated the minds of the chess players 
in the 20s and 30s Black has absolutely nothing to complain about. Good 
pawn structure, easy development, no weaknesses. White isn't even threatening 
any immediate action. However, Botvinnik felt correctly that a possibility of a 
central advance e3-e4-e5 (after the preparatory f3) could lead to a violent attack 
on the kingside. Hard to believe? Well, at least you are thinking on the same 
lines as the great Cuban champion." 
 - GM Garry Kasparov.  
(From the ChessBase analysis of this game.) 

11. Bxa6,  Reasonable.  

And it also puts the Black Knight on the edge of the board.

[ 11.f3!?, (Maybe - '!') - GM Kasparov. ]  

 

11...Nxa612.Bb2!?,  Development. 

This is OK, but maybe not the absolute best. 

(Its possible this piece may be better [later] on the a3-f8 diagonal.) 

'?' - G. Kasparov. 
(I personally feel it is ridiculous to give this move a question mark. 
Kaspy even says - several times in his analysis of this game - that 
opening theory was really not even properly developed yet ... 
especially in a 'NEW' opening, like the Nimzo-Indian!) 

*** 
( I should also point out that Kasparov has, ... 
"An axe to grind."
 
What I mean by this, is that he is: 
A.) Hyper-critical of the older games; and 
B.) He may be trying to 'devalue' these games to make his 
own achievements look better. [Super-EGO] 
***
While I do not believe he would go to the point that Alekhine did and 
falsify game scores, his objectivity at times is simply HIGHLY questionable. 
{He also brings little to these games, other than that of the viewpoint of a World 
Champion. After looking at the annotations of Botvinnik, Fine, Chernev, Kmoch, 
Flohr etc. -  all these players probably annotated this game before Kasparov 
was important as a chess player; or before he was even born! - I have come to 
the conclusion that he offers little or nothing new on this game. 
He offers NO new variations!}  
I should also point out that virtually no other annotator of stature gave a 
question mark to the moves that Kasparov graded so harshly, and I do 
generally point out what mark each annotator will give a certain move. 
For example, Botvinnik, Fine, and Soltis all go WITHOUT using a question 
mark for this move, and they are great annotators in their own right. ) 
*** 

'?' - Keene. 
'?!' - Burgess. 
'No mark' - GM A. Soltis. 

[ Probably better is: 12.Qd3!, ("with an initiative.")  
- GM G. Kasparov.
 
(& GM Mikhail Botvinnik. And GM Ruben Fine.) ] 

 

12...Qd7!;  Centralization and light-square control. 

This move deserves an exclam, according to Soltis. 

The centralized Queen hits key light squares. Virtually every annotator 
who has annotated this game, has believed that Black's 12th move was 
worthy of an exclam. 

Here is a short list of the more important writers and annotators who 
believed that this move deserved an exclam: 

*** 
'!' - GM Andy Soltis. 
'!' - Irving Chernev. 
'!' - GM R. Fine. 
'!' - GM M. Botvinnik. 
'!' - GM H. Kmoch. 

***

13. a4,  (Box?)  Space gainer. 

This is now forced, according to GM Kasparov. 

[ 13.Qd3?!, ('?')  13...Qa4!; ... "sealing White off from the Queen-side." 
- GM Garry Kasparov.  ]. 

 

13...Rfe8!?;  A sensible move. 

Soltis gives this move no mark at all. 

I give it an 'interesting' appellation. 

Kasparov gives this move a question mark, but that is FAR too harsh!! 

It certainly looks like a natural move (LOGICAL!) to put the KR on a 
half-open file, supporting the e4-outpost. 

'?' - GM G. Kasparov. 

'?!' - FM Graham Burgess. 

[ According to Kasparov, MUCH better was: 13...cxd4!?; ('!') 
14.cxd4 Rfc8; with the idea of ...Rc4 and ...Rac8.  - GM Kasparov. 
(Although Botvinnik suggested this line before Garry was even born!) 
Now 15.Nf4 Rc4; 16.Qb3 Rac8; "=" ] 

 

14. Qd3 c4?!;  (Maybe - '?')  Definitely not the best.  

(But ... I consider this to be a "near-miss" .............. 
 and a  VERY STRONG  winning try by Capa!!) 

'?' - GM Garry Kasparov. 
'?' - GM A. Soltis. 
'?!' - FM G. Burgess. 

"A positional blunder." - GM M. Botvinnik. 

"A logical looking move, but one that fails completely." 
 - GM  Salo Flohr. 

"A serious positional mistake." - GM G. Kasparov. 
(Garry proceeds to state the fairly reasonable hypothesis that 
 Capa often under-estimated hidden dynamic factors.) 

"This move is the source of all of Black's problems."  - GM A. Soltis. 
(I don't think this is true,(!) but this is what GM Soltis wrote.)

"Black is playing for the win. 
He intends the maneuver ...Knight from a6 to b8-c6-a5-b3; 
 ... eventually isolating - and then winning - Black's QRP." 
 - Irving Chernev. 

The move ...c4; seems to make great chess sense. Black seals 
in White's QB, making it a very bad-looking Bishop indeed. In addition 
to this, Black has targeted White's QRP as a weakness for removal 
from the board. 
(The plan LOOKS like it is winning.) 

( The move, 14...c4, is also the beginning of a very deep plan. First, Black 
fixes White's pawns on the dark-squares, and appears to make White's QB 
a very bad piece indeed. Secondly, the move creates an outpost on b3. Black 
then maneuvers his Knight on a6 to that square, via b8-c6-a5. This knight 
deployment artificially isolates White's QRP, which Black then can win this unit. 
In order to survive, White must let the Pawn go, and place all his hopes in a 
strong central advance. 
BUT ...  
It takes ultra-brilliance of the  very first magnitude  to refute Black's plan!!

However hindsight is always 20-20!  The plan (outlined above) is faulty for 
several (many) reasons. The two most important reasons that 14...c4; fails, is 
that it takes all the pressure off of White's center, and the plan of annexing White's 
QRP will require Black leaving his King virtually defenseless.

The computer also likes 14...c4; it is the second choice in this position. 
(The first choice is the move, 14...Nc7.) 

*** 
{The move, 14...c4; is the FIRST choice of many strong computer programs, 
such as Crafty and ChessMaster 8000!} 
*** 

After 14...c4; the computer - after over five minutes of analysis time - 
considers Black a little better by just a hair. 
(Almost ten (10) one-thousandths of a point.) 

I personally feel giving this move (14...c4;) a full question mark is way too harsh. 
The move is very plausible, and the computer(s) also like this move. 

[14...Qb7!; "="  - GM A. Soltis. 
(I believe this move originated with GM Mark Taimanov.) ] 

 

15. Qc2 Nb8;  Redeployment. 

"The Knight returns home to start anew on a long journey." 
 - Irving Chernev. 

16. Rae1,  (Probably - '!')  A good move. 
(Rooks belong in the middle of the board!) 

"White accepts the challenge." - Irving Chernev. 

'!'  - Irving Chernev. 
'16. QR-K1!' - GM R. Fine.

"Now the groundwork for the ensuing battle is laid: White sacrifices 
the QRP and allows Black to advance on the Q-side, while he plans 
to break through in the center." 
  - GM Ruben Fine
( In his book: "The World's Great Chess Games." 
  1951,  1976, Dover books.

 [ 16.Ba3 Nc6; 17.Bb4 Nxb4; 18.cxb4 Qd6; "=/+" ] 

 

16...Nc6;  The Knight re-emerges. 

(The square the Knight should have went to in the first place.) 

This valiant steed is headed for b3. This will greatly disrupt White's 
Q-side. Black will probably win the White QRP as a result. The danger 
is that The Knight may be slightly out of play here, as indeed happens 
here during the course of the actual game. 

17. Ng3,  (Maybe - '!')  Pointing at the Black King, 
 ... and preparing the pawn advance, e3 to e4. 

This is probably the best, preparing the central advance. 

[Several other moves have been suggested in this position. 
They are: 17.Ra1!?,  or 17.Ba3!?,  or 17.h3!? ]. 

 

17...Na5;  Black continues with his plan. 

At this point, Black may not really have any real choice. 

[ Not 17...Ne4?!; 18.Nh1!!, "+/="  - GM G. Kasparov.  
  (Not 18.Nxe4 Rxe4; "=" 
Now 18...f5; 19.f3 Nd6; 20.Ng3, "+/="  - GM R. Fine. ]  

 

18. f3!,  Getting ready for the, "Big Push!" 

White intends to play e3-e4, building a big center. He then 
would have the option of expanding further, say with e4 to e5. 

This plan, "...packs a punch," according to - GM A. Soltis. 
(GM Soltis gave this move an exclam, as did many other annotators.) 
(Nunn and Burgess also give this move an exclam.)

[ Junior 6.0 gives the line: 18.e4 Nxe4; 19.Nxe4 dxe4; 20.Rxe4 Rxe4; 
 21.Qxe4 Re8; 22.Qc2 Nb3; 23.Bc1 Qxa4; "=/+" 
 24.Qf5,  Black is clearly better.  -0.30/17 ].  

 

18...Nb3;  "=/+"  Interesting.  (Who is better?)  

The computer programs/analysis engines all rate Black 
as better here by a
over half a pawn. 

"Both sides are quite persistent. The a4-pawn is lost, but the  
 long-awaited central advance is also ready."  - GM Garry Kasparov.  
 (In his ChessBase analysis of this game.) 

19. e4 Qxa4;  Grabbing the goodies. 

"This miserable pawn has played an important role as 
  bait for the tiger!"  - GM Garry Kasparov. 

"Both players have achieved their objectives: Black has won a Pawn,  
  while White has advanced in the center."  - Irving Chernev. 

20. e5 Nd721. Qf2!,  Anticipation and avoidance. 

Clearly the best, and a nice move. And not at all that obvious. 

'!' - GM A. Soltis. 
'!' - British Chess Magazine. 

White anticipates Black playing ...Ncb5; and shifts 
the White Queen to the Kingside for attack. 
(Nunn and Burgess also give this move an exclam.) 

[ 21.Nf5!? Re6; ("=/+")  Or 21.Rb1? Nbc5!; "-/+"  (Or 21...Qc6!?)  ].  

 

21...g6;  (Box.)  This looks forced. 

Black felt compelled to slow up the f3-f4 advance AND keep a White Knight off f5 and h5.

22. f4 f5;  Again, this is forced. 

Kasparov notes that this move allows the opening of the e-file 
and an exchange of Rooks. 

"He must stop 23. P-B5, if only for the moment."  - Irving Chernev. 

"Forced."  - GM R. Fine. 

[ 22...Qc6?; 23.f5!, "--->"  with a HUGE attack for White. ] 

 

23. exf6,  (PxP e.p.)  White MUST open lines. 

This was also part of his overall strategy, also. 

"Naturally White must keep the game open to make
  his local superiority of force on the kingside tell."  
 -  GM J. Nunn & FM G. Burgess.  

"The only way to maintain the attack."  - Irving Chernev. 

[ 23.Qf3?!, ('?')  23...Qc6; "=/+" ]  

 

23...Nxf6;  Forced.  

[ 23...a5?!; 24.f5, "+/-" ].  

 

24. f5,  White continues forward. 

Really the only [good] move available for White. 

Kasparov notes that this move further exposes the Black Monarch.

"It is now very difficult for Black to defend. He tries to 
 do so by exchanging off the Rooks on the e-file." 
 - GM J. Nunn & GM G. Burgess.  

[ 24.Rxe8+?! Qxe8!; 25.Kh1 a5; "=/+"  with a very nice game for Black. 
Or 24.h4? Rxe1; 25.Rxe1 Re8; "-/+"  and Black is better across the 
entire chess-board. ]. 

 

24...Rxe1;  Black decides to reduce the material 
on the board.  

25. Rxe1 Re8;  (Probably best.)  Forced again?  

Black probably has to play this. My rather extensive analysis, only part of which 
I have reproduced here, indicates the alternatives are clearly worse.  (But there 
are some pretty ways for Black to lose, so I give two variations here.)  

[ Kasparov analyzes the line: 
Var. # 1.)  25...Rf8; 26.Qf4!, 
 (White could have also tried: 26.fxg6!?;  Or
26.Re6!? ) 
26...Qa2;  What else? 

 ( The Mammoth Book gives the line: 26...Qd7; 27.Re6 Na5; 
  {If 27...Ne4; 28.Qe5 Nxg3; 29.Re7!?, "+/=" (Maybe - '!')  
 "wins the Black Queen."  - FM G. Burgess.  
   MUCH better is: 29.Ba3!! Nxf5; 30.Bxf8 Qa4; 31.Qb8!, "+/"  (Maybe "+/-")   
 - LM A.J. Goldsby I.  Not 29.hxg3?! Rxf5; "/+" and Black is clearly better.}  
  28.Ba3! Rf7; 29.Qg5!, "+/-" ... "and White has a large advantage."  - FM G. Burgess. )  

(Returning to the analysis line 25...Rf8; 26. Qf4!, Qa2;)   27.fxg6! Qxb2; 
 ( Not 27...hxg6
; 28.Qg5, "+/-" )     28.g7! Kxg7;   Looks forced.  

***

The alternatives are:
a).  28...Rf7; 29.Qb8+ Kxg7; 30.Nf5+ Kg6; 31.Qg3+ Ng4;  Probably forced. 
  Not 31...Kxf5??
; 32.Re5#;   Or 31...Kh5?; 32.Qh4+ Kg6; 33.Qh6+ Kxf5;  
  34.Re5+ Kg4
; 35.Qg5#    32.Qxg4+ Kf6; 33.Qh4+ Kg6; 34.Re6+ Kxf5; 
 35.Re5+ Kg6; 36.Qg5#,  Line by {A.J.G.};  
b).
  28...Qa3!?;  {The computer says this move is forced.}  29.Nf5, "+/-"  
White is winning easily.  

***

(Returning to the main analysis line that begins with 25...Rf8.)  
29.Nf5+ Kh8; 30.Qd6,   ( 30.Qh6?? Qf2+!; "-/+"    30...Rf7;    (30...Nd7!?)  
31.Qxf6+! Rxf6; 32.Re8+ Rf8; 33.Rxf8#,   Line by:  - GM G. Kasparov.  
(Chernev actually gave it first, in the book, "The Golden Dozen.");  

NOTE:  The final word on 25...Rf8;  may not be in, see the analysis on   
              this page for more details. (This post is very relevant.) 

                                            **************************       

Or Var. # 2.)   25...Kf7!?; 26.Re6! Re8; 27.Rxf6+!! Kxf6;  
 28.fxg6+ Kxg6;
  Forced. 

***

The alternatives are not attractive for Black. I.e., 
a).  28...Kg7?!; 29.Qf7+ Kh6;   (29...Kh8??; 30.Qxh7#)    (White now bypasses
many material wins to give mate.)  30.Qxh7+!! Kg5; 31.h4+! Kf4; 32.Qh6+! Kxg3; 
33.Qg5#; A pretty line. 
b). 
28...Ke6?; (Maybe - '??')  Black now loses almost everything.  29.Qf7+ Kd6; 
30.Nf5+ Kc6; 31.Qxe8+ Kc7; 32.Qxa4, "+/-"   
c). 
28...Ke7; 29.Qf7+ Kd8;   (Not 29...Kd6??; 30.Nf5+, "+/-")    30.gxh7 Nd2;  
31.h4 Qb5; 32.Ba3! Qd7; 33.Qf6+ Kc7; 34.h8Q, "+/-"  

***

(Returning to the analysis line that began with 25...Kf7.) 
29.Qf5+ Kg7;   (29...Kh6??; 30.Qf6#)    30.Nh5+ Kh6;  
  (30...Kg8?
; 31.Qg5+ Kf7; 32.Qf6+ Kg8; 33.Qg7#)  
31.h4!!,  Best.   (Many annotators give: 31.g4!, "+/-"  winning.)    
31...Rg8;  Forced. (The threat was Qg5#.)  32.g4! Qc6; 33.Ba3!!, "+/-"    
with a winning attack. ].  

 

White to move, what move would you make?
26. Re6!,  (Maybe - '!!')  Nice. 

 Given an exclam by Soltis, and clearly the best.  

"White's attack remains strong, even in a 'Queen-and-minor-piece' endgame." 
 - GM A. Soltis. 

(Nunn and Burgess also give this move an exclam.) 

'!' - Irving Chernev. 
'!' - GM M. Botvinnik. 

'!!' - GM R. Fine. 
'!!' - IM David Levy. 

[The very tempting: 26.fxg6?!,  (Maybe - '?')   26...hxg6;  27.Rf1,  
 (27.Rxe8+ Nxe8; "=/+") 
27...Re6; 28.Qf4 Qd7; "="  leads to no real advantage at all for White. ]  

 

26...Rxe6;  This looks forced. 

Everything else gets pretty much blown out of the water ... 
- and pretty quickly too.

[  The alternatives are clearly inferior for Black. For example: 

Soltis gives: 
Var. # 1.)  26...Ne4?;  27.Nxe4 dxe4?!; 28.fxg6!, "+/-" wins easily for White. 
 - GM A. Soltis.  Burgess concludes this line with: 28...Qd7; 
  If 28...Rf8
; then 29.gxh7+,  and White wins a Rook.  - Chernev.   
 Or 28...hxg6?
; 29.Rxg6+ Kh7; 30.Qf7+ Kh8; 31.Rh6#. {A.J.G.}   
29.gxh7+ Kxh7; 30.Qf5+,  with a decisive advantage for White. ("+/-"); 

Soltis also gives the line: 
Var. # 2.)  26...Kf7!?; ('?' - FM G. Burgess.)  Soltis only gives White's next move one exclam, 
but I feel it fully deserves two. (Burgess also gives White's next move an exclam.) 27.Rxf6+!! Kxf6; 
28.fxg6+ Kxg6;   (If 28...Ke7; 29.Qf7+ Kd8; 30.gxh7!, "+/-"  Burgess only gives the vastly inferior   
move,  30. g7?!)    29.Qf5+ Kg7; 30.Nh5+ Kh6[];   (Not 30...Kg8; 31.Qg5+ Kf7; 32.Qf6+ Kg8; 33.Qg7#)    
31.h4!!,  The absolute best.    ( Chernev gives the line: 31.g4! Qc6 ; 32.Ba3! a5 ; 33.Bf8+!?,  (33.h4!)    
33...Rxf8; 34.Qxf8+ Kg5;  (34...Kg6; 35.Qg7#)  35.Qf5+ Kh4;  (35...Kh6; 36.h4,  forces mate.)    36.Nf6, ("+/-") ...   
"and Black will  have to give up his Queen to stop mate." - Irving Chernev. )     31...Rg8;  32.g4!, 
 (32.Nf6!? "+/-"   32...Qc6; 33.Ba3!,  with a mating web. (Burgess also gives this line.); 

Chernev gives the line:
Var. # 3.)  26...Ng4; 27.Qe2,  ...  " and White wins quickly. " 
- Irving Chernev. ]  

 

27. fxe6 Kg728. Qf4!?,  Nice.  (Probably - '!') 

"Threatening 29. Nf5+, gxf5; 30 Qg5+." - GM A. Soltis.  

(Although Chernev was the first to point this out.) 

'!' - GM R. Fine. 
'!' - B.C.M.

[ 28.Qe3!?, "Unclear," "~" ].  

 

28...Qe8;  This looks forced, also. 

"The Queen must return." - GM G. Kasparov.  

[ 28...Qa2?; 29.Nf5+!,  with a mating attack. 
29...gxf5; 30.Qg5+ Kf8; 31.Qxf6+,  ... "and mate in two more moves." 
- FM G. Burgess.  

Chernev  gives the line:  28...a5?; 29.Nf5+! gxf5[];  (Forced.) 
 (If 29...Kf8; 30.Qd6+,  and mates. Or 29...Kg8; 30.Qc7, "+/-"
 
30.Qg5+ Kf8; 31.Qxf6+ Ke8; 32.Qf7+ Kd8; 33.e7+ Kc7; 
 { If 33...Kd7; 34.e8Q+, ("+/-") }   34.e8Q+ Kd6; 35.Qfe7#. ].

 

29. Qe5!,  "I'm the ramrod in this outfit."  

The most accurate. And clearly the best move here. 

(Most computers, even today, do NOT immediately play this move!). 

Most annotators, (including Soltis); do not seem to 
realize what a key move this is. 

This move supports the advance of the e-pawn and also 
 strongly pins the Black Knight on f6. 

[ Many strong computers choose the lines: 29.Qd6, 
or 29.Qc7+,  instead of 29.Qe5!, My students, over the years, 
have also suggested the moves: 29.Ba3; or 29.h4, here. ].

 

29...Qe7!?Maybe - '?!'  Defence and blockade. 

This is interesting, and Chernev says that it is forced. 

'?' - GM A. Soltis. 
'?' - FM G. Burgess. 

(Kasparov gives this move no mark at all.) 

The move, 29...Qe7; may not be the best. 
(At least according to most OTHER annotators. I am not so sure, however.) 

The best defense may be the move, 29...h6. 
(The idea is to give the Black King a hiding place on h7, 
and prevent the combination in the game.) 

I first had the idea for the move, 29...h6; over 25 years ago, and 
I wrote "CL&R" about it, although my letter was never printed. 

(I feel quite confident that the move ...h6; probably originated with the Russians.) 

"This move (29...Qe7;), invites a justly acclaimed combination." 
 - GM A. Soltis. 

It seems that a reasonable argument is that you should NOT give 
a move a question mark, unless you can provide a continuation that 
is clearly better. (The move, 29...Qe7; APPEARS - at first blush, at 
any rate - to be better/winning for Black!)

The line Soltis provides ... also wins for White, is probably equally as long, 
but is not nearly as pretty. So I fail to see - or agree - with Soltis's rationale 
in giving the move, 29...Qe7; a full question mark. 

Kasparov remarks that attack and defence, ......... 
"have reached a faltering parity." 

<<  Capa's 29...Qe7; has seemed to smother the White attack. 
a.)  The passed pawn is blockaded. 
b.)  The Bishop is prevented from moving to R3, and seizing the a3-f8 diagonal. 
c.)  Black's Knight is now doubly protected.  >>   -  Irving Chernev.  

I should also point out that my analysis OVERTURNS many key lines and 
Black defenses. It no longer even appears that the move, 29...h6; even holds 
the game for Black. (IF this turns out to be true, there would obviously be no 
point in questioning the move, 29...Qe7.) 

[  Probably the best defence is: 

Var. # 1.)  29...h6!?;  (Maybe - '!')  
"The critical move." - GM John Nunn. 
30.Ba3,  Probably - '!'  The sharpest move.
This move is also the first choice of most the computer programs I used 
to analyze this game. 

*****

There are many alternatives to 30. Ba3. A few are:

 a).   Soltis also analyzes: 30.h4!?, (This move may have originated with GM J. Nunn.) 
30...Na5; This is forced, the idea is to play ...Nc6; and kick White's Queen off the key e5-square. 
("The best try," - FM G. Burgess, says of 30...Na5; after 30. h4.) 

***

The alternatives (to 30...Na5; in this line) are really bad, and lose by force. I.e., 
30b_a1).  30...Nd2?;  31.Bc1!,  The best. 
 ( Or 31.h5!? Nde4[];   (Not 31...g5??; 32.Nf5+ Kg8; 33.Qxf6, "+/-"  32.Nxe4 dxe4; 
 33.d5, "+/=" ) 
  31...Nb3; 32.Qc7+ Kh8; Probably best.   (Not 32...Kg8??; and 33.Bxh6
 now Black cannot reasonably guard g7.)   33.Bxh6 Qg8; 34.Qe5 Kh7;  Again forced. 
 (Definitely not 34...Qh7??; 35.Qxf6+ Kg8; 36.Qf8#)   35.Qxf6 Kxh6; 36.e7,  This is 
 good.   (Interesting is: 36.Nf5+!?)    36...Kh7;  (The threat was Qf8+.)  and now White 
plays 37.Qf8, ("+/-");  and his e-pawn will promote. 
30b_a2).  Or 30...b5?; 31.h5 a5; 32.Ba3,   (32.hxg6!?)    32...b4; 
33.cxb4, "+/" (Maybe "+/-") ... "and White should win." - FM G. Burgess. 
30b_a3).  Or 30...a5?; 31.h5, "+/="  (Maybe - "+/")  ...  "is a similar story." 
- FM G. Burgess. 
30b_a4).  Or 30...Qe7?; 31.h5 Na5;  (31...Qe8!?)  32.hxg6, "+/"  (Maybe - "+/-")  
... "and Black is too slow with his counterplay."  - FM G. Burgess. 
30b_a5).  Or 30...h5;  ('?!',  Maybe -'?')  (Weakens g5.)  31.Ba3 Na5; Probably 
the best move here.   (31...Qd8?!; 32.Qg5, "+/"  32.Qc7+ Kg8; 33.Be7 Ng4; 
34.Qd7 Qxd7; 35.exd7, "+/"  (Really "+/-")  ... "wins a piece, leaving White with 
a won ending." - FM G. Burgess.  

***

[ Returning to the analysis line of: 29...h6; (!?) 30. h4, Na5; ]  
31.Bc1!,  The best. (Soltis does not give this move an exclam. White has several 
reasonable alternatives here. Several computers do not initially choose this move, 
and the idea behind this move is not readily apparent, so I feel it fully deserves an 
exclamation point.)  The alternatives to 31. Bc1 are all grossly inferior.  (31.Qd6!?) 
31...Qe7;   ( 31...Nc6?; 32.Bxh6+ Kxh6; 33.Qxf6 Kh7; 34.h5, "+/-" (Closer to "+/-")
32.Bg5!,  "+/="  Soltis does give this move an exclam. ( And Soltis ends his analysis 
line here. He does remark that this move is much better than 32. Ne2. )   (32.Ne2!?)  
32...Nc6;  This looks forced. Black does have a another possibility here. 
 ( Or 32...hxg5?!; ('?') 33.hxg5 Nc6; 34.gxf6+ Qxf6; 35.Qxd5 Nd8;  (35...Ne7!?)   
 
36.Qd7+ Kf8; 37.d5 Qg5;  (37...Qe7!?; 38.Qb5!, "+/-" - {A.J.G.}   38.Qd6+!,  Nice. 
  (Burgess gives the inferior: 38.Nf1!?,  ...  "and White wins." - FM G. Burgess.)   
 
38...Ke8; 39.Ne4, "+/-" White is winning. {A.J.G.} )     
33.Bxf6+ Qxf6; 34.Qxd5 Qxh4;
  Black's only chance, according to Burgess. 
35.Qd7+ Ne7[]; 36.Qc7!, "+/="  White is clearly better. (Maybe - '+/') 

***

Now as before, the analysis path splits. 
Instead of 36. Qc7!, White can also play:
36w_a1).  (Again, Burgess give a fairly inferior continuation.)  Burgess gives: 
36.d5?! Kf6; 37.d6 Qxg3; 38.Qxe7+ Ke5; 39.Qg7+! Kxd6;  This looks forced. 
 (Black can play several other moves instead of 39...Kxd6;  but they are inferior.)  
Or  a11).  39...Kxe6; 40.Qe7+ Kf5; 41.d7, "+/-"  
Or  a12).  39...Kf5; 40.Qf7+ Kg5; 41.d7 Qe1+; 42.Qf1 Qd2;  43.e7!?, ("+/-") ... 
 ... "and wins."  - FM G. Burgess.   ( But better is: 43.g3!, "+/-"  {A.J.G.} )  
(Returning to the line of the analysis of this sub variation that began with 36. d5?!)
40.Qd7+ Kc5;    ( Not 40...Ke5??; 41.Qc7+ Kxe6; 42.Qxg3, "+/-" )    41.Qd4+ Kb5; 
42.Qe4 Qb8;   ( Black could try: 42...Qxc3!?; Or 42...Qd6; 43.e7 Qd1+; 44.Kh2 Qh5+
  45.Kg3 Qg5+; 46.Kf3 Qf6+; 47.Ke2, "+/-"  and White has escaped all the checks by   
  the Black Queen. )   43.e7 Qe8; 44.Qd5+ Ka6; 45.Qd8,  ("+/-")  [White is winning.]  
 ... "and wins." - FM G. Burgess.  

Or  36w_a2).  White could also probably try: 36.Qxa7!?,  ("+/=")  

***

(We now return to the main analysis sub-variation, that began with 30. h4!?) 
(Continuing this line - just a few moves - we get the following moves:) 
36...h5; 37.Nf1 Kh6; 38.Qxa7, "+/-"  White is very close to having a won game.  
 - LM A.J. Goldsby I.  

***

 Or  b).    30.Qc7+ Kg8; "~" ... "and the e-pawn needs protection." - FM G. Burgess.);  

***

 Or  c).    30.Ne2!? Na5; 31.Nf4,   (31.Qc7+ Kg8; 32.Nf4 g5; 33.Qe5 Ng4; "=")   
31...Nc6; 32.Qc7+ Ne7; 33.Ba3, "+/="   (Not 33.Qxa7?! g5; 34.Ne2 Kg6
35.Qxb6 Nc6;
"="  ... and the White e-pawn falls." - Burgess.
  33...g5;  This seems 
to be both best and forced.  34.Bxe7,   ( White could also try: 34.Ne2 Nfg8!;  "Intending 
 ...Qc6; or ...Kf6."  - FM G. Burgess.  35.g4, "="  (Maybe - '+/=')Or  34.Qxa7!? gxf4
 35.Qxe7+ Qxe7; 36.Bxe7,  "="  ... which  "leads to a complicated endgame which 
 seems OK for Black."  - FM G. Burgess. )
   34...gxf4;  Forced.  35.Bd8+!?,  
(Maybe - '!')  "+/="  This seems like the best try for White. {LM A.J. Goldsby} 
 (Instead, Burgess gives the inferior: 35.Qxa7?! Kg6; 36.Bxf6 Kxf6; 37.Qxb6 Qxe6
 38.Qxe6+ Kxe6; 39.Kf2 Kf5; 40.Kf3 Kg5;  "="  ... "with a drawn K+P ending."  
 - FM Graham Burgess.)  

The computer continues this line: 
(Junior 6.0:)    
37.Qxb6,  "+/="  0.26/14.  After 45 minutes of computing time, the computer 
gives nearly half a pawn advantage for White. ('!') 
(The above evaluation was the initial one, after only a few minutes.)  

*****

(We now return to the main analysis line that began with 29...h6!?;) 
30...Qd8; 31.Ne2 Na5;  "+/="  GM A. Soltis stops here and comments:
"Analysis as far ahead as move 40 indicates that White is winning."  
Burgess
continues this line: 32.e7,  (32.Nf4!?)   32...Qd7; 33.Nf4!?,  
  (33.Qb8!?, "+/="  - A.J.G.
  33...Nc6; 34.Qe6! Qxe6; 36. Nxe6+ Kg8[];
  (35...Kf7?; 36.Nd8+, "+/-"  35...Kh8?; 36.Nc7, "+/"  36.Nd8, The Mammoth 
Book stops here and states: ... " and now Black should play either 36...Na5; 
or 36...Nb8;  with a good game." - FM G. Burgess.  
36...Nb8;
"=/+"  37.Bd6! Nbd7; 38.Kf1,  (White has definite compensation  
for his very small material deficit.); 
and the White King is free to meander over 
to the Queenside and win the game.  - LIFE Master A.J. Goldsby I. 
(A two-day analysis of this position, with the aid of several powerful chess-playing 
programs, indicates that Black may NOT be able to hold the defence.); 

**********

Var. # 2.)  29...Na5?!;  (Maybe - '?')  
"Premature," according to Burgess.  30.Bc1!! Nc6; 
31.Bh6+!,   (31.Qc7+!? "+/="   31...Kxh6; 32.Qxf6,  White now threatens mate 
in two, beginning with Nf5+.  32...Ne7;  Forced?    (32...Qd8; 33.Qxd8 Nxd8
34.e7,
"+/-"
)    33.h4, ('!')  Very cute. (White now threatens a mate in two moves, 
beginning with the quiet move 34. Nh5!)  33...Qd8;  
 (33...a5?!; 34.Nh5!! ... "and mate at g5 by the White Queen is inevitable."
 - Irving Chernev.  >>> This line was also given by GM Ruben Fine.) 

and 34.Nf5+,   wins the Black Queen. (FM G. Burgess.)  ].  

 

 Now comes one of the most brilliant moves in all of the 
 pantheon of chess. 
(And also ... one of the prettiest moves ever played on a chessboard.) 
30. Ba3!!
,  (Maybe - '!!!')  Unbelievable brilliance.  

A very beautiful move, and unique (at least up until this game); 
idea - in my opinion.  

In a highly simplified setting Botvinnik gives away not one, 
BUT TWO!!!!!   ...................   (2!)  minor pieces!!  

The idea is to expose the Black King as much as possible, and then try to 
force the White e-pawn in for a Queen. Most players, including all the other 
Masters watching this game, felt confident Black could get at least .... 
a perpetual check. 

I have tested literally hundreds of players here in this position. 
(Over the years.) 
Almost no one has ever even considered this move. 

(Virtually every annotator, at least most of any stature, I have seen 
gives this move a double exclam!)  

"Marvelous! Botvinnik begins a 12-move combination 
 with a stunning double sacrifice."  - Irving Chernev. 
(Chernev only awarded one exclam here. Was he upset? 
Capa was his favorite player!) 

'!' - Irving Chernev. 

 '!!!' - GM Ruben Fine. 
'!!' - GM Hans Kmoch. 
'!!' - GM M. Botvinnik.
'!!' - GM G. Kasparov. 
'!!' - FM G. Burgess. 

[ Most players consider the moves: 30.Nf1!? or 30.h4!? 
(Both of these moves result in an advantage for Black.)  ] 

 

30...Qxa3;  This is forced. 

"Refusing the offer allows the White Queen to invade." - GM A. Soltis. 

[ Not: 30...Qe8?!; 31.Qc7+ Kh6; 32.Be7! Kg7[];  This is forced. 

***

The alternatives are:
a).  32...Ng4?!; 33.h4!, "+/-"   (Soltis gives: 33.Qd7!? Qa8!?; 34.Bd6, "+/-");  
b).
  32...Ng8?; 33.Qf4+ Kg7; 34.Qe5+ Nf6[];   (Or 34...Kh6??; 35.Bg5#
       35.Nh5+! gxh5; 36.Bxf6+ Kf8;   (Or 36...Kg6?? ; 37.Qg5#)   37.Qd6+ Kg8;  
       38.Qg3+! Qg6[];   (Or 38...Kf8?; 39.Qg7#  39.Qb8+ Qe8; 40.Qxe8#. 

***

33.Qxa7! Na5; 34.Bd8+ Kf8; 35.Bxf6 Qxe6; 36.Be5, "+/-" and White is winning easily. 
(I generated this entire line [first] with the help of the computer.) {A.J.G.} ] 

 

31. Nh5+!,  (Maybe - '!!')  Another sacrifice? 

Yet one more sacrifice, to further expose Black's King. 
(It almost looks as if Botvinnik has lost it and is playing give-away!) 

"One sacrifice after another."  - Irving Chernev. 

'!' - Irving Chernev. 
'!' - GM M. Botvinnik. 
'!' - GM A. Soltis. 
'!' - FM G. Burgess. 

'!!' - GM Ruben Fine. 
'!!' - Sir G.A. Thomas. 
(About a dozen different annotators have awarded this move a double exclam. It is a 
completely shocking move, especially in connection with White's previous move.)  

[ Most players want to play the move 31.e7, in this position. ]  

 

31...gxh5;  This too looks forced.  

[ GM A. Soltis gives the line: 31...Kh6; 32.Nxf6 Qc1+; 33.Kf2 Qd2+; 
34.Kg3 Qxc3+; 35.Kh4!,  He stops the line here and comments: ... 
"and Ng4+, mating."  - GM A. Soltis. 
 (
The line: 35.Kf2 Qd2+,  may only lead to a repetition of moves.)  

The computer gives: 35...Qe1+!?; (Forced?)    (35...Qxd4+; 36.Ng4+ Qxg4+;  
37.Kxg4,
"+/-"  White is winning.  - FM G. Burgess.  Not 35...g5+??; 36.Qxg5#)  
36.Qxe1, "+/-"  and evaluates the position as a "mate-in-8" for White. ]  

 

32. Qg5+ Kf833. Qxf6+ Kg8;  Forced. 

[ 33...Ke8??; 34.Qf7+ Kd8; 35.Qd7#,  - Irving Chernev.  ] 

 

34. e7!,  (Maybe - '!!')  Incredible!!! 

A quiet pawn move finishes Black off. 
(White threatens both mate-in-1,  and a winning pawn promotion.).

(The computers find this move in a few seconds. 
However a 2300+ dedicated [chess-playing] microprocessor 
thought for nearly 5 minutes, and considered this position equal.) 

"Two final points," (mate threats and by-passing the plausible perpetual check); 
"makes this game exceptional."  - GM A. Soltis. 

This is the final exclam that Soltis awards in this game. 

"White is still a piece down, but his pawn is now unstoppable. 
Black's only hope is perpetual check, but it isn't quite there."
- FM G. Burgess. 
(In his book, "Chess Highlights Of The 20th Century."

"An incredible concept. Perhaps one of the most brilliant moves in the annals 
of chess, only because it is a quiet move that finishes the game." 
 - LM A.J. Goldsby I. 

***

'!' - GM A. Soltis. 
'!' - GM R. Fine. 
'!' - GM Hans Kmoch 
'!' - GM M. Botvinnik. 
'!' - FM G. Burgess. 

'!!' - Irving Chernev. 
'!!' - J.F. Kirby. 
'!!' - GM E. Eliskases. 
(Eliskases considered this game the most brilliant game of chess ever played.) 

Chernev gives this move, 34. P-K7, (e7) TWO exclamation points. 
( '34. e7!!'  - Irving Chernev.
(Approximately a half-dozen well-known annotators give this move a double-exclam, including the great S. Gligoric.) 

[ The very tempting: 34.Qf7+?!, ('!?')  34...Kh8; 35.e7??, 
allows a perpetual check beginning with 35...Qc1+. 

 (35.Qf6+! Kg8; 36.e7!!,  still wins.  Or possibly 35.g3!? "+/-"

35...Qc1+; 36.Kf2 Qd2+; 37.Kg3 Qg5+; ('!')  

 (37...Qxc3+?, 38.Kh4 Qxd4+; 39.Kxh5 Qe5+; 40.Kg4 Qe4+
 41.Kh3 Qe3+
; 42.g3 Qh6+; 43.Kg2 Qd2+; 44.Qf2, "+/-")  

38.Kf2,  There are no winning lines here. The White King 
cannot escape the endless parade of checks by the Black Queen. 

  OR ... Burgess gives the more interesting line: 38.Kf3 Nd2+; 
  39.Ke2 Qxg2+; "It is important to remove this pawn."  
 - FM G. Burgess.  40.Kd1 Qg1+; 41.Kc2,  
 
(Or 41.Kxd2 Qxh2+; 42.Kc1 Qg1+; 43.Kb2 Qh2+!, "="     
  41...Qb1+; 42.Kxd2 Qd3+; 43.Ke1 Qe3+; 44.Kf1 Qc1+;     
  45.Kf2 Qd2+; 46.Kg3 Qg5+!; 47.Kf3 Qg4+; 48.Kf2 Qh4+;  
  49.Kf1 Qh3+;  ... "is a perpetual check."  - FM G. Burgess. 

38...Qd2+!; "=" etc. It is obvious that Black has a perpetual check. ]

 

34...Qc1+35. Kf2 Qc2+36. Kg3 Qd3+;  
37. Kh4 Qe4+
38. Kxh5! Qe2+;  Lots of checks. 

Black cannot stop checking. 

[ If 38...Qg6+?!; 39.Qxg6+ hxg6+; 40.Kxg6,  and strangely Black
is helpless to stop the promotion of the White e-pawn. ]  

 

39. Kh4!, White must still exercise caution. 

[ 39.g4!?, ('?')  39...Qxh2+;  40.Kg5, ("+/-")  still wins 
for White (maybe!), but it takes MUCH longer. ]  

39...Qe4+40. g4! Qe1+;  
41. Kh5
,   Black Resigns. 1 - 0.  

Black has run out of checks and his game is over. (White mates, ... or his pawn promotes.) 

The fact that Botvinnik may not have been able to fully calculate this line from beginning to end, does not detract from this game at all. To me it actually adds luster to the game. Botvinnik had to rely on his great genius and instincts, and have faith in his abilities to play this great and wonderful game of chess. Perhaps one of the "All-Time Ten Best" games of chess ever played. 

(The fact that this game was played in perhaps one of the most important  - and perhaps maybe the strongest - tournaments in chess history, does not hurt its reputation either.) 

***

I have been complimented by MANY titled players, (including GM's); on the analysis of this game. Several have said that this is easily the best job on this game ever! 


Bibliography: 
I consulted the following books/sources in annotating this splendid game. ( I have seen or viewed the annotations of this game dozens of times over the years. For instance, it was printed in the magazine, "Chess Life and Review,at least once ...  probably many times. I also have seen it in dozens of other magazines, many printed in tribute to Botvinnik when he passed away. {1995} )  

The following were the main sources I used: 

# 1.)  My annotations are based primarily on those found in:
GM Andy Soltis's  book,  "The 100 Best." { "The 100 Best Chess Games of The 20th Century, Ranked." } 
(Maybe one of the best books of the last 50 years.)   2000, McFarland Books. 

# 2.)  (The Mammoth Book Of) "The World's Greatest Chess Games." by  GM John Nunn, GM John Emms, and FM Graham Burgess. 
1998, Carroll & Graf. (One of the "Ten Best" chess books ever written!) 

# 3.)  The book, "The Golden Dozen." ("The twelve greatest chess players of all time." & Selected Annotated Games.) - by Irving Chernev. 
1976, Oxford University Press. (This is now a real collector's item.)  

# 4.) The book, "The World's Great Chess Games,"  [edited]  by  GM Ruben Fine.  1951, 1976, Dover books. 

# 5.)  The book, "One-Hundred Selected Games," by  GM M. Botvinnik,  (& others). 1951,  1960; Dover books. 

# 6.)  The book, "Chess Highlights of the 20th Century," (The Best Chess 1900-1999 In Historical Context.). by FM Graham Burgess.  
1999, Gambit Publications, Ltd. 

# 6.)  GM Garry Kasparov's superlative analysis of this game, in  ChessBase magazine.  (Database.) 

# 7.)  A.V.R.O.  1938;  (Pamphlet)  ("B.C.M." Classic Reprint, #12.) By  G.A. Thomas, H. Kmoch, et. al. 1938,  British Chess Magazine

# 8.)  "My Great Predecessors, Part II,"  by GM Garry Kasparov. (& friends) Published by Everyman Chess in 2003. Copyright (c) by the author and publisher. ISBN:  1-85744-342-X (The analysis of this game begins on page # 125.) 

   ---> There is a great deal of analysis in this book, many pages of double-column analysis on this one game alone ... I have not had time to analyze it all in great detail. 
          Most interesting is is the analysis of the critical move, 29...h6!; by Moscow Master Vladimir Goldin. But there is little else that is brand new or revolutionary about 
          this historic contest. [Feb. 06, 2004.] 

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(  I also used to have a book in German on Botvinnik's games. Although I no longer have this book, I can recall most of the annotations on this game. I also
used to have a book on A.V.R.O; 1938; but I have lost it over the years.  I also referenced a very old Chess Digest [K. Smith] pamphlet of Botvinnik's games. )  


   (This page last updated:  Friday;  February 06th, 2004.  (Page last edited or modified on: Friday, November 06, 2015 12:46 AM .)  

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  Copyright () A.J. Goldsby, 1985 - 2015.  
  Copyright A.J. Goldsby, 2016. All rights reserved.  


  Click  HERE  to see a nice blog article on this game ... which also mentions this page.  

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